MATER ET MAGISTRA. And in other countries a notable percentage of income is absorbed in building up an ill-conceived national prestige, and vast sums are spent on armaments. We are sick at heart, therefore, when We observe the contradiction which has beguiled so much modern thinking. 261. This attitude is contagious, especially when it infects the work that is being done for the less developed countries, which have often preserved in their ancient traditions an acute and vital awareness of the more important human values, on which the moral order rests. Há 39 anos, este é o espírito da Mater et Magistra: sempre refletir e, incessantemente criar e recriar o seu próprio conceito de Educação. Mater si, magistra no (literally "Mother yes, teacher no") is a macaronic phrase that means Catholics need not follow all the teachings of the Catholic Church, particularly in regard to economic justice or the rights of workers.It was originally in direct response to the papal encyclical Mater et Magistra of 1961, as a reference to the then-current anti-Castro slogan, "Cuba sí, Castro no." 146. Any other procedure would be a clear violation of justice, even supposing the contract of work to have been freely entered into by both parties. New York : America Press, ©1961 (OCoLC)576142677: Document Type: Book: All Authors / Contributors: Donald R Campion; Eugene K Culhane; Catholic Church. There will always remain, therefore, a vast field for the exercise of human sympathy and the Christian charity of individuals. We must also express here Our heartfelt appreciation of the work that is being done by the International Labor Organizationâpopularly known in various countries as the O.I.L. Moreover, in becoming as it were the life-blood of these people, the Church is not, nor does she consider herself to be, a foreign body in their midst. 110. 182. But We must remind you here of an important truth: the Christian conception of life demands of allâwhether highborn or lowlyâa spirit of moderation and sacrifice. It must therefore aim at implanting and fostering among the faithful an awareness of their duty to carry on their economic and social activities in a Christian manner. 284 check-ins. 158. 7. 184. Yet although individuals and nations are becoming more and more convinced of this twofold necessity, it would seem that men in general, and particularly those with high responsibility in public life, are showing themselves quite incapable of achieving it. We are, of course, well aware that overproduction, especially in agriculture, can cause economic harm to a certain section of the population. Interest on capital, pricesâwhether of goods or of servicesâprofits and wages, were to be determined by the purely mechanical application of the laws of the market place. - Duration: 24:52. Personal Initiative and State Intervention, 53. In helping these nations, therefore, the more advanced communities must recognize and respect this individuality. Consequently, farmers find greater difficulty in obtaining the capital necessary to increase returns. They concern first of all the question of work, which must be regarded not merely as a commodity, but as a specifically human activity. 25. Wages were insufficient even to the point of reaching starvation level, and working conditions were often of such a nature as to be injurious alike to health, morality and religious faith. The Church is by divine right universal. Small wonder, then, that the Catholic Church, in imitation of Christ and in fulfilment of His commandment, relies not merely upon her teaching to hold aloft the torch of charity, but also upon her own widespread example. Animated, too, by the charity of Christ, he finds it impossible not to love his fellow men. We are bound above all to consider as an ideal the kind of farm which is owned and managed by the family. Imprint Routledge. Hence, we are told, if nothing is done to check this rise in population, the world will be faced in the not too distant future with an increasing shortage in the necessities of life. Mater et Magistra (llatí per a «Mare i Mestra») és una encíclica escrita pel papa Joan XXIII sobre el tema del cristianisme i progrés social. It taught that the state must sometimes intervene in matters of health care, education, and housing. The Self-Advancement of the Farming Community. 29. It is part of the natural order, which teaches that the individual is prior to society and society must be ordered to the good of the individual. Topics. 216. But these problems can become difficult of solution, or even insoluble, if man, led astray in mind and perverted in will, turns to such means as are opposed to right reason, and seeks ends that are contrary to his social nature and the intentions of Providence. We are filled with an overwhelming sadness when We contemplate the sorry spectacle of millions of workers in many lands and entire continents condemned through the inadequcy of their wages to live with their families in utterly sub-human conditions. Facilities could then be provided for the training of such people for their new kind of work, and they would not be left without economic aid and the mental and spiritual assistance they need to ensure their proper integration in their new social milieu. 200. Ideally, such price protection should be enforced by the interested parties themselves, though supervision by the public authority cannot be altogether dispensed with. 89. Pronunciation of mater et magistra with 1 audio pronunciation and more for mater et magistra. Every precaution was to be taken to prevent the civil authority from intervening in any way in economic matters. "[The] solidarity of the human race and Christian brotherhood demand the elimination as far as possible of these discrepancies.". (35) Encyclical letter Quadragesimo anno; AAS 23 (1931) 214. Both sides must work together in harmony, and their respective efforts must be proportioned to the needs of the common good in the prevailing circumstances and conditions of human life. Nevertheless, in his striving to master and transform the world around him he is in danger of forgetting and of destroying himself. His message, not unnaturally, aroused opposition in some quarters, but was received by the majority of people with the greatest admiration and enthusiasm. 221. In the majority of cases a man's work is his sole means of livelihood. There must be a way to regulate the prices of petroleum in the country so that the producers cant just increase their prices to gain profit because the prices of … (5a), No Solution Apart from Religion and Church, 16. 128. In addition, he took the opportunity not only to clarify certain points of this teaching which had given rise to difficulties even in the minds of Catholics, but also to reformulate Christian social thought in the light of changed conditions. 129. We should recall here the principle enunciated by Pius XI in Quadragesimo Anno: "It is entirely false to ascribe to the property alone or to the work alone whatever has been obtained through the combined effort of both, and it is wholly unjust for either, denying the efficacy of the other, to arrogate to itself whatever has been produced." Then, too, a further consideration arises. This must take into account tax policies, credit, social insurance, prices, the fostering of ancillary industries and the adjustment of the structure of farming as a business enterprise. (24) "This is a fundamental principle of social philosophy, unshaken and unchangeable. In this connection, as Our Predecessor clearly points out, it is advisable in the present circumstances that the wage-contract be somewhat modified by applying to it elements taken from the contract of partnership, so that "wage-earners and other employees participate in the ownership or the management, or in some way share in the profits." But it is not enough to assert that the right to own private property and the means of production is inherent in human nature. In the first place, considerable thought must be given, especially by public authorities, to the suitable development of essential facilities in country areasâsuch as roads; transportation; means of communication; drinking water; houseing; health services; elementary, technical and professional education; religious and recreational facilities; and the supply of modern installations and furnishings for the farm residence. Some of these were little more than ephemeral; others have undergone, and are still undergoing, substantial change; others again are proving themselves less and less attractive to modern man. Mater et Magistra was written in observance of the 70th anniversary of Pope Leo XIII's encyclical Rerum Novarum.It also refers to the social teaching of Pope Pius XI in Quadragesimo Anno, and of Pope Pius XII in a radio broadcast given 1 June 1941. In those country areas where they are lacking, economic and social progress is either prevented or greatly impeded, with the result that nothing can be done to retard the drift of population away from the land, and it even becomes difficult to make a good appraisal of the numbers involved. As We pass all this in review, We are aware of Our responsibility to take up this torch which Our great predecessors lighted, and hand it on with undiminished flame. MATER ET MAGISTRA. These are very necessary if farm workers are to benefit from scientific and technical methods of production and protect the prices of their products. The lone voice is not likely to command much of a hearing in times such as ours. It is a work, therefore, which should be thought of as a vocation, a God-given mission, an answer to God's call to actuate His providential, saving plan in history. 99. Personal gain was considered the only valid motive for economic activity. As for the problems which face the poorer nations in various parts of the world, We realize, of course, that these are very real. So long as social relationships do in fact adhere to these principles within the framework of the moral order, their extension does not necessarily mean that individual citizens will be gravely discriminated against or excessively burdened. Also seen in CBCP News is an article saying that the Oil Deregulation Law must be junked because if it pushes through, the prices are sure to increase as well. It is important also to bear in mind that in agriculture, as in other sectors of production, association is a vital need todayâespecially in the case of family farms. Every effort must be made to ensure that the enterprise is indeed a true human community, concerned about the needs, the activities and the standing of each of its members. Vintage Christmas Tree - Cool Nostalgic Xmas Songs (Past Perfect) - Duration: 1:10:31. Mater et Magistra marks the beginning of a transition in the ethical methodology of Catholic Social Teaching towards a more inductive approach. Hence, the real solution of the problem is not to be found in expedients which offend against the divinely established moral order and which attack human life at its very source, but in a renewed scientific and technical effort on man's part to deepen and extend his dominion over Nature. Pius XII, however, comes to our rescue with the following directive: "The small and average sized undertakings in agriculture, in the arts and crafts, in commerce and industry, should be safeguarded and fostered. Such men are appalled when they consider how these gigantic forces for good can be turned by science into engines of destruction. In business the main operative principle was that of free and unrestricted competition. Mater et Magistra calls for a greater awareness of the need for all peoples to live as one community with a common good. Pronunciation of mater et magistra with 1 audio pronunciation and more for mater et magistra. But however extensive and far-reaching the influence of the State on the economy may be, it must never be exerted to the extent of depriving the individual citizen of his freedom of action. In an economic world of this character, it was the might of the strongest which not only arrogated to itself the force of law, but also dominated the ordinary business relationships between individuals, and thereby undermined the whole economic structure. In such circumstances, they must, of course, bear themselves as Catholics and do nothing to compromise religion and morality. She is the Mother and Teacher of all nations. (46), The Real Source of Justice, Truth and Love. Drawn together by their common needs nations are becoming daily more interdependent. 34. (42). As a world problem, the case is put thus: According to sufficiently reliable statistics the next few decades will see a very great increase in human population, whereas economic development will proceed at a slower rate. making the assistance they give an excuse for forcing these people into their own national mold. Every man has, of his very nature, a need to express himself in his work and thereby to perfect his own being. It pains Us, therefore, to observe the complete indifference to the true hierarchy of values shown by so many people in the economically developed countries. 105. (7) It has also the duty to protect the rights of all its people, and particularly of its weaker members, the workers, women and children. No age but hears her warning voice, vibrant with heavenly wisdom. PAX TVONLINE 47,914 views. 196. 192. 139. , The Pope writes of the dignity of agricultural work, with the family farm held up as an ideal. 249. "Mater et Magistra is a betrothal between the community of justice and the community of charity. In addition, a sound agricultural program is needed if public authority is to maintain an evenly balanced progress in the various branches of the economy. In such cases We believe that the workers should be allocated shares in the firms for which they work, especially when they are paid no more than a minimum wage. They can therefore be instrumental in reducing imbalances between the different classes of citizens. It is taught that the state must sometimes intervene in matters of health care, education, and housing. Similarly, Our Predecessor, Pius XII, rightly asserted that our age is marked by a clear contrast between the immense scientific and technical progress and the fearful human decline shown by "its monstrous masterpiece . But a contributory cause of this movement away from the country is doubtless the fact that farming has become a depressed occupation. 242. 93. 209. Hence the insistent demands on those in authorityâsince they are responsible for the common goodâto increase the degree and scope of their activities in the economic sphere, and to devise ways and means and set the necessary machinery in motion for the attainment of this end. Today, however, such accomplishments seem modest by comparison, for those same figures have multiplied several times … 260. The Church aims at unity, a unity determined and kept alive by that supernatural love which should be actuating everybody; she does not aim at a uniformity which would only be external in its effects and would cramp the natural tendencies of the nations concerned. 177. It describes a necessity to work towards authentic community in order to promote human dignity. 134. Mater et magistra (łac. (52) God certainly has the right and power to command man to devote one day a week to his duty of worshipping the eternal Majesty. And, with the right ordering of human society, may all nations at last enjoy true prosperity, happiness and peace. transforming man into a giant of the physical world at the expense of his spirit, which is reduced to that of a pygmy in the supernatural and eternal world." They opened out new horizons for the activity of the universal Church, and the Supreme Shepherd, by giving expression to the hardships and sufferings and aspirations of the lowly and oppressed, made himself the champion and restorer of their rights. Even more powerful are efforts to provide the citizens of those nations with the necessary resources and training to implement modern methods and speed up development. They encourage whatever is conducive to honesty and virtue, and strive to eliminate every obstacle to the attainment of this aim. But it does not follow that one is thereby exonerated from extending emergency aid to those who need it. Instead, they should strive to find points of agreement for effective and suitable action, and not wear themselves out in interminable arguments, and, under pretext of the better or the best, omit to do the good that is possible and therefore obligatory. This fact must be recognized, as also the fact that they are raised in the plan of Providence to an order of reality which is above nature. First, one reviews the concrete situation; secondly, one forms a judgment on it in the light of these same principles; thirdly, one decides what in the circumstances can and should be done to implement these principles. Such associations may consist either of workers alone or of workers and employers, and should be structured in a way best calculated to safeguard the workers' legitimate professional interest. (39a) has undertaken to establish effective collaboration among nations, to promote the modernization of agriculture especially in less developed countries, and to alleviate the suffering of hunger-stricken peoples. On the contrary, We insist that they must intensify it and increase it continually. It also guarantees "the conservation and perfection of a social order which makes possible a secure, even if modest, property to all classes of people." It "secures for the father of a family the healthy liberty he needs in order to fulfil the duties assigned him by the Creator regarding the physical, spiritual and religious welfare of the family." It is discernible in the writings of the Popes who succeeded Pope Leo. Finally, they fail to take account of that deep-rooted sense of religion which exists in all men everywhere, and which nothing, neither violence nor cunning, can eradicate. You know well enough, Venerable Brethren, the basic economic and social principles for the reconstruction of human society enunciated so clearly and authoritatively by this great Pope. For men of this stamp are always in evidence, and, like cockle among the wheat, thrive in every land. "Mater et Magistra," a Latin expression which literally means "Mother and Teacher," has long been used to refer to the authority that Christ Himself bestowed upon the Church, in entrusting to her the Petrine "Keys of the Kingdom." The means often used, the methods followed, the atmosphere created, all conspire to make it difficult for a person to think independently of outside influences, to act on his own initiative, exercise his responsibility and express and fulfil his own personality. (1992). 131.  Pope John commends wealthier nations that give assistance to poorer nations. This adaptation must be effected principally by the workers themselves and the members of the co-operatives. Arguments to this effect are based on such unreliable and controversial data that they can only be of very uncertain validity. 219. It describes a necessity to work towards authentic community in order to promote human dignity. (41), 159. For some considerable time now, Venerable Brethren, Our solicitude for the Universal Church has been directed into the writing of this letter; and We wish to conclude it by voicing the following desires: May man's divine Redeemer "who of God is made unto us wisdom and justice and sanctification and redemption," (65) reign and triumph gloriously throughout all ages, in all and over all. There is the lure of novelty and adventure which has taken such a hold on the present generation, the attractive prospect of easy money, of greater freedom and the enjoyment of all the amenities of town and city life. But we must realize that they are essentially instrumental in character. There was also the constant spectre of unemployment and the progressive disruption of family life. Century Plaza 201 (2,792.58 mi) Guatemala City, Guatemala 01000. In some parts of the world men are being subjected to inhuman privations so that the output of the national economy can be increased at a rate of acceleration beyond what would be possible if regard were had to social justice and equity. It is therefore a great source of joy to Us to see those nations which enjoy a high degree of economic wealth helping the nations not so well provided, so that they may more effectively raise their standard of living. (4) And these were no empty words of our divine Redeemer. 195. But the Church teaches, too, that goods of this kind must be valued according to their true nature: as instruments used by man for the better attainment of his end. Mother and Teacher of all nationsâsuch is the Catholic Church in the mind of her Founder, Jesus Christ; to hold the world in an embrace of love, that men, in every age, should find in her their own completeness in a higher order of living, and their ultimate salvation. . Mater et magistra was written in observance of the 70th anniversary of Pope Leo XIII's social encyclical Rerum novarum. In the name of God, therefore, and for the sake of the material and spiritual interests of men, We call upon all, public authorities, employers and workers, to observe the precepts of God and His Church and to remember their grave responsibilities before God and society. This attitude must inevitably impair the bodily and spiritual health of the workers, whose welfare We have so much at heart. Experience shows that these problems arise whether the capital which makes possible these vast undertakings belongs to private citizens or to public corporations. The reason for this is that the individual productive concerns, regardless of their size, efficiency and importance in the State, form but a partâan integral partâof a nation's entire economic and social life, upon which their own prosperity must depend. 217. Whereas the standard of living is high in the former, the latter are subject to extreme poverty. Mater et Magistra is a letter by Pope John XXIII, whose real name is Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli. Ivetta of Huy: Mater et Magistra . 127. The members of these associations, besides profiting personally from their own day to day experience in this field, can also help in the social education of the rising generation by giving it the benefit of the experience they have gained. ABOUT MATER ET MAGISTRA - LIBRERIA CATOLICA. 173. (7) St. Thomas, De regimine principum, I, 15. It must rather augment his freedom while effectively guaranteeing the protection of his essential personal rights. But a further point needs emphasizing: Any adjustment between wages and profits must take into account the demands of the common good of the particular country and of the whole human family. 37. There are vast hidden depths still to be explored and adequately explained. It is a task which belongs particularly to Our sons, the laity, for it is their lot to live an active life in the world and organize themselves for the attainment of temporal ends. 118. Against this dark background, the brilliance of his teaching stands out in clear relief. 82. They may even go so far as to bring discredit on the Church's teaching, lending substance to the opinion that, in spite of its intrinsic value, it is in fact powerless to direct men's lives.  Hence, in Quadragesimo Anno Pope Pius XI rightly observed that "a proper proportion between different wages is also a matter of importance." 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