The section of the performance that I have transcribed ends shortly before the entrance of a second piano line, so only one piano part is indicated on the staff. Nowadays, the routes and bands are generally announced to the neighborhood in advance so people can plan. Second lines are our pride, joy, and what makes us unique. New orleans second line mix by MrDjko// Culturally Distinct Podcast published on 2015-07-10T02:39:23Z. The group on the recording consists of Wynton Marsalis on trumpet, Branford Marsalis on saxophone, Delfeayo Marsalis on trombone, Ellis Marsalis, Jr. on piano, Eric Revis on bass, and Jason Marsalis on drums. When repeated regularly, additive rhythms often function as a “time line,” a common organizing feature of Afro-diasporic musics that Richard J. Ripani defines as “a short rhythmic pattern that serves as a reference rhythm for the entire ensemble” (2006:50). 2011. Eighth-note durations in measure 16 of “The 2nd Line.”. For the purposes of my transcription, I averaged the durations of the long and short eighth notes and came up with an average long-to-short ratio of roughly 4:3. We also offer New Orleans Jazz ensemble style and classic favorites too. Audible evidence suggested that the basic pattern would consist of alternating longer and shorter eighth notes. Jazz funerals are a big part of New Orleans culture, and with jazz funerals, comes second lines. Ned Sublette writes that while slavery was brutal and inhumane in Spanish New Orleans as elsewhere, “the slave was treated more as a human being, albeit an enslaved one” there than in the French and British colonies (2008:97). In 1976, filmmaker Maurice Martinez asked Mardi Gras Indian Chief Jake Millon to describe the characteristic rhythm that underlies the music of black New Orleans. Meters, The. This ratio is indicated in the expressive note below the drum stave at the beginning of my transcription of “The 2nd Line.” It is not accurate in representing the range of eighth-note durations both long and short, however, hence the graphic representations above. It would not be outrageous to claim that the musical traditions of New Orleans were the wellspring of twentieth-century popular music. The bamboula and the clave are both crucial building blocks of second line rhythms. Download our mobile app now. The slave codes of the Spanish colonial period, which lasted from 1763 to 1803, allowed blacks some freedom of movement and expression outside of their long working hours, permitted slaves to own property, and offered a legal path for slaves to purchase their freedom. We methodically combine factors of the event: theme, style, venue,  performance, target audience and produce a noteworthy lineup of music that compliments the events narrative, and delivers an entertainment experience with elegance and style. Paid to keep patrons drinking, celebrating, and cohabiting, Storyville musicians began to experiment with more flexible timing and ragged, danceable, “funky” syncopations. Perhaps the figures I have provided in each of my analyses, which illustrate the durations of each eighth note as accurately as was possible for my study, could serve as a starting point for a new notational model that indicates duration spatially. Discover more music, concerts, videos, and pictures with the largest catalogue online at Last.fm. User 269260022. shane fish I'm on ya now! Basic snare pattern, “The 2nd Line.” Transcribed by author. 2000. As with “The 2nd Line,” the reader should keep in mind that the underlying feel is somewhere in between a triplet shuffle and a straight quadruple meter. Our talent and prices cannot be beat!! Finally, in bar 11, the song’s groove is established, with piano and guitar accenting variations of the 3-3-2 pattern found so frequently in second line music. Congo Square: African Roots in New Orleans. user949601102. Through this analysis I hope to have demonstrated a few of the different ways in which features of second line rhythm are utilized in different genres of New Orleans music. We also offer New Orleans Jazz ensemble style and classic favorites too. The second, “Hey Pocky-a-Way,” is an original song, based on an old Mardi Gras Indian chant, by “second line funk” group the Meters. “‘Funky Drummer’: New Orleans, James Brown and the Rhythmic Transformation of American Popular Music.”. A further development that had a substantial impact on the city’s black musicians was the creation of the red-light Storyville district in 1887. Eighth-note runs in “The 2nd Line,” measures 15 and 16. I have devoted particular attention to two features—additive 3-3-2 rhythms and an uneven, “between the cracks” feel—that have been adopted in a wide variety of American popular and jazz styles, and through my analysis of these features one basic point has become clear: Western musical notation is woefully unequipped to illustrate any feel or pulse aside from straight or triplet-shuffle rhythm. Due in part to their widespread influence, second line rhythms are a foundational component of many international jazz and popular music styles today. We lead our second line parades with the iconic sounds of New Orleans brass band music. Funk groups sprang up all across the country in the wake of James Brown’s groundbreaking late 1960s singles, offering their own variations on Brown’s transformation of the second line beat. This mural, titled “The Third Line,” is 150-foot-long, 35-foot-tall homage to second line culture. In the streets of New Orleans, black Union bands mixed with German marching bands, both combining with local brass ensembles to march and play for a variety of annual festivities (Smith 1994:93). Chicago: Lawrence Hill. Instead, it can only be learned through listening and actual practice. Jasmine Green. After some deliberation, I opted to follow this procedure in both of my transcriptions (see below for a more detailed explanation of how I determined the degree of this “between the cracks” swing). Many couples opt to add a grand marshal, an energetic local who heads the parade. Since the durational ratio of long to short eighth notes in “Hey Pocky A-Way” differs from that in “The 2nd Line,” we can see once again that the “between the cracks” feel may vary from piece to another, or indeed from one style to another. In contrast to the divisive rhythm typical of Western classical music, in which larger rhythmic units are divided equally, in additive rhythms the larger rhythmic or metrical unit is divided unequally. Instead of discouraging creative expression among slaves, however, the new slave codes ultimately brought “Congo Square music” to international attention. To test my initial impressions of both pieces and make transcription of the piano and guitar parts easier, I attempted to reproduce what I was hearing with a MIDI program called Sonar Home Studio. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. CD. A singer, songwriter and guitarist, Ben has performed in groups that range from gospel and madrigal choirs to the University of Alberta's MENAME (Middle Eastern and North Africa Music Ensemble) and UCLA’s mariachi band. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. We produce professional, affordable, quality music and entertainment for events. Even the latter requires an artificial accommodation and is impractical to notate throughout a piece. Using GigSalad made securing the Second Line Band easy. The World That Made New Orleans: From Spanish Silver to Congo Square. The beauty of this hard-working cr… read more. The resultant ratio of 4.25:2.9125 can be simplified to a ratio of roughly 4:2.75, which is the ratio I indicated in the expressive text below the first two measures of the drum staff in my transcription. Occasionally, the melody of the response will conclude on the V chord after returning to the tonic, though that is not the case here. A typical second line parade features brass-and-percussion ensembles playing a syncopated march, accompanied by revelers who add chants, dances, and rhythms of their own. Reprise MS 2200. Up From the Cradle of Jazz: New Orleans Music Since World War II. Michael P. Smith defines the second line as follows: Strictly speaking, the “second line” is the mass of people who follow a traditional African-American parade in New Orleans. We lead our second line parades with the iconic sounds of New Orleans brass band music. Another dance performed in Congo Square, the bamboula, had an accompanying rhythm analogous to the Afro-Cuban clave. I found that I could not replicate the rhythms of either piece using triplets or straight eighths, and it was only then that I realized the true feel of both songs lay somewhere in between. Gretna, LA: Pelican. 2007. Second line parades are the descendants of the city’s famous jazz funerals and, … Hinton, James and Maurice Martinez. This “and-3, 4” sequence is introduced before the main drum pattern is even established, with the entering fill on measure 6. This shift opened up a space for New Orleans musicians to experiment further with the mixed feel of the second line. As the social climate and music scene became more hostile to blacks, the black fraternal organizations first established at the end of the previous century went underground. Upcoming new orleans second line concerts in Cincinnati. They arrived as scheduled and the parade went on without a hitch. During a funeral second line, the hearse is moved from the funeral to the burial service, joined by guests. Though Bolden met an early demise due to alcoholism and mental illness, his successors carried his ideas forward with the wide fluctuations of timing and accentuation later known in New Orleans as “between the cracks.”. Account & Lists Account Returns & Orders. In “The 2nd Line,” the ambiguity of the “between the cracks” feel was offset somewhat by the duple (1-2, 1-2) march time feel of the ride-bell and tambourine pattern, but there is no such stabilizing framework here. The instrumentation, then, is more typical of a small jazz group than a traditional New Orleans brass band. You don’t even have to live here. User 239585079. wanna team. The Second Line is a tradition in parades organized by Social, Aid and Pleasure Clubs (SAPCs) with brass band parades in New Orleans, Louisiana, United States. Cuban son clave rhythm. Figure 7 illustrates the duration of each eighth note of the two runs I analyzed in measures 15 and 16: Figure 7. As big-band swing evolved into jump blues, rhythm and blues, and rock and roll, shuffle rhythms began to decline in popularity and were largely replaced by a straight-eighths pulse (Stewart:297). The above figure displays the durations of the fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh eighth notes in measure 15. diverse audiences from around the globe and can play many cultural folk tunes. Through the circuitous routes that black New Orleans musicians of the mid-twentieth century took around the country and across an ever-changing musical landscape, second line rhythms were adapted and absorbed into a variety of popular genres. In this essay I hope to expand on the work of Stewart, Payne, and other scholars through a historical and musicological exploration of the relationship between second line rhythms and funk, as well as a comparison of the usage of second line rhythms in contemporary jazz and funk contexts. No More, No More: Slavery and Cultural Resistance in Havana and New Orleans. Jazz Religion, the Second Line, and Black New Orleans. Instead, it can only be learned through listening and actual practice. The New Birth Brass Band are part of a long line in the New Orleans brass band tradition, but their relative youth means their music yields an eclectic set of musical genres. A jazz band accompanies the procession to celebrate the life of the deceased. Daniel E. Walker notes in his book No More, No More: Slavery and Cultural Resistance in Havana and New Orleans that the Congo Square dances were part of an African slave performance tradition which had numerous other manifestations throughout the Americas (2004:3-4). It is the tension between the straight fourths of the tambourine and the uneven eighth-note subdivisions characterizing the other instrumental lines that make this performance a classic example of second line rhythm. shane fish I'm on ya ass now! We also offer New Orleans Jazz ensemble style and classic favorites too. We can perform as background music or take over, center stage! Marsalis Family. Most of the development is rhythmic rather than harmonic/melodic, with each of the instruments interlocking in a composite rhythmic pattern. Find album reviews, stream songs, credits and award information for New Orleans Second Line! As in my transcription of “The 2nd Line,” I have indicated the relative durations of long and short eighth notes in “Hey Pocky A-Way” with a ratio, in this case 4:2.75. Over the course of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, black musicians in New Orleans developed a unique rhythmic syntax which underlies Crescent City jazz, rhythm and blues, and funk music. Since these features underlie so much American and global popular music, it is clear that a notational system that can better describe them must be devised. I found that, indeed, there was a consistent pattern of alternating long and short eighth notes, though the proportions were not especially consistent. In common speech, however, when people refer to a “second line,” they imply the whole event—generally a brass band or black Indian parade or a jazz funeral sponsored by any of the city’s large number of traditional black social clubs and civic societies. Formed out of an ordinance that restricted prostitution to a 37-block area south of Canal Street, the “barrelhouses and bordellos” of Storyville provided employment for some 200 musicians during its thirty-year existence. The one minor departure from typical 12-bar form is bar 14, which submerges the typical IV chord in a four-chord turnaround that actually passes down through every chord in the key from V to II, touching the IV chord only before moving to the III chord and then to the II. Ned Sublette cites the bewildered testimony of traveler Christian Schultz, who witnessed and wrote one of the first detailed accounts of a Sunday Congo Square dance in 1808 (2008:281). Give the Drummers Some. 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